Discarded cigarette butts are wiping out fish by leaking poisonous chemicals into their stomachs scientists say.
A single butt with just a tiny amount of tobacco left in it was enough to turn one litre of water toxic and kill 50 per cent of species swimming in it.
Even if no tobacco remained it took less than two butts to destroy half of marine fish and just over four to do the same to freshwater varieties researchers from San Diego University claim.
‘Cigarettes are the most common form of litter in the world with more than 5.6trillion filters finding their way into the environment every year.’
When immersed in water each one becomes a time-released capsule of compounds such as nicotine and cancer-causing chemicals.
Leachates (contaminated water) from smoked cigarette butts with remnant tobacco were significantly more toxic to fish than the smoked filters alone but even unsmoked filters exhibit a small level of toxicity said Prof Richard Gersberg.
The study represents the first to show leachate from cigarette butts is acutely toxic to representative marine and freshwater fish species. The study is published in Tobacco Control: 2011 April 19 Metro.
Photos: Chaffinch. Male & Female
Male Chaffinch bewitching pink breast cheeks blue-grey crown, nape. Back chestnut brown white black. A striking stunning – ‘visual feast.’
Summer bill is grey-blue turning to pale brown in winter.
Likes hopping under hedges and bird tables. “Jocular energetic cheery tinkle singing with many rich varied calls.”
‘Nest knitted together with spiders webs inside dense bush or tree.’ One brood; 1.
“Chaffinch singing between February-June used to be the sound of Spring. Loud splendid reverberant energetic it speeds up in a series of descending notes which ends on flourish of three syllables.”
Research has shown the brightly coloured male Chaffinch sing with different accents or dialects in different parts of the country. Songs are basically very similar but with subtle changes. ‘A note is missed here or there or a high ‘kik’ note added at the end.’
‘They also have a familiar ‘pink-pink’ call which is easy to remember as their song matches the colour of their breast.’
Retain dense bramble patches bushes for resting and hiding – For ALL – ‘Of our Songbirds’ – From Predators!
Help Chaffinches: Invertebrates: Caterpillars tiny insects larvae spiders flies worms. Berries fruit elderberry. Your many twigs and leaves.
Britain Chaffinch Numbers Are – Cheerlessly – Shockingly ‘way down!’… Just Why - Britain ? – HOW MANY LEFT ?
Once caged and many British pubs ‘once upon a time’ – held Chaffinch – ‘song contests!’…
Fish Are Known ‘Victims’ of – Discarded ‘acutely toxic’ – Cigarettes ! – “Leaking out poisonous chemicals!” News 2011
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